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The Philosophers

The following list of philosophers includes most of the philosophers that have come to be recognized as philosophers today. Some were not strictly philosophers, or philosophers at all (such as some scientists) but they were nevertheless important influences in the field of philosophy. The list is not exhaustive and is meant only as a reference.

Those philosophers that are covered in local (Independent Individualist) articles are presented in bold text and are linked to the appropriate articles. All of the other philosophers are linked to external sources which are good sources as a starting place for learning more about them.

The list of philosophers contains Western Philosophers only. So-called "Eastern Philosophy" is mostly mysticism and religion. Western "philosophers" whose philosophy was limited strictly to theology also have not been listed.

Other External Sources

The following are additional resources on philosophy and philosophers I have enough confidence in to recommend.

Philosophy Pages provides a very broad source of information on philosophers, philosophy, and philosophical concepts, but not in any great depth.

Stanford Encyclopeida of Philosophy is an excellent in depth source of information on both philosophers and philosophy.

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy is a scholarly "peer reviewed" resource on nearly every philosopher and philosophy.

New World Encyclopedia has an excellent section on philosophers and philosophy. (The sites philosophy is not endorsed by the Independent Individualist—use with caution.)

The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive—Indexes of Biographies Though dedicated to mathematics, a great many philosophers are listed.

Biographical Dictionary of Scottish Philosophers Most of the Scottish philosophers are covered. A predominance of Scots were philosophers.

Philosopedia Use their search to find philosophers or philosophy concepts.

These sources are fairly good at explaining the philosophy of specific philosophers, and the more common philosophical concepts. When attempting to analyze the importance or value of these things however, these sources should be used with great caution because they will have their own philosophical viewpoint, which is very often incorrect. Almost all the works of the more important philosophers are available on line, and where serious questions about any philosophers' views are to be considered, one should look first at the what the philosophers themselves wrote.

[Note: There are over 400 philosophers listed here.]

Listed by Date
Listed Alphabetically
Anaximander (611-547 BC)

Thales (585 BC)

Pythagoras (585-497 BC)

Xenophanes (570-475 BC)

Heraclitus (540-475 BC)

Anaximenes (528 BC)

Parmenides (510 BC)

Anaxagoras (500-428 BC)

Empedocles (492-432 BC)

Protagoras (485-415 BC)

Hippias (485-415 BC)

Socrates (469-399 BC)

Democritus (460-370 BC)

Leucippus (450 BC)

Zeno of Elea (450 BCE)

Antisthenes (446-366 BC)

Aristippus (435-356 BC)

Xenophon (430-350 BC)

Plato (427-347 BC)

Diogenes of Sinope (404-323 BC)

Xenocrates (396-314 BC)

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

Euclid (365-300 BC)

Pyrrho (360-270 BC)

Epicurus (341-271 BC)

Zeno of Citium (334-262 BC)

Timon (320-230 BC)

Archimedes (287-212 BC)

Chrysippus (280-207 BC)

Eratosthenes (276-197 BC) (Mathematician)

Carneades (214-129 BC)

Cicero (106-43 BC)

Lucretius (99-55 BC)

Philo of Alexandria (20 BC-40)

Seneca (1 BC-65)

Epictetus (55-135)

Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

Sextus Empiricus (200)

Plotinus (204-270)

Porphyry (234-305)

Augustine (354-430)

Hypatia (370-415)

Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (475-526)

al-Kindi (800-870)

John Scottus Eriugena (800-877)

al-Farabi (872-950)

Saadya (Saadiah) (882-942)

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037)

St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)

al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad (1055-1111)

Peter Abelard (1079-1142) (Theology)

Peter Lombard (1095-1160)

Abraham Ibn Daud (1110-1180)

Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198)

Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon) (1138-1204)

Samuel Ibn Tibbon (1165-1232)

Grosseteste (1168-1253)

Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano) (1170-1250) (Math)

Albert the Great (Albertus Magnus) (1206-1280)

Roger Bacon (1214-1292)

Saint Bonaventure (1217-1274)

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) (Theology)

Boetius of Dacia (1230-1285)

Siger of Brabant (1235-1282)

Meister Eckhart (1260-1328)

John Duns Scotus (1266-1308)

Marsilius of Padua (1270-1342)

William of Ockham (Occam), (1280-1349)

Gersonides (Levi ben Gershom) (1288-1344)

John Buridan (1295-1356)

Marsilius of Inghen (1340-1396)

Crescas (1340-1411)

Nicholas of Cusa (Nikolas Krypffts von Kus) Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457)

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499)

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)

Desiderius Erasmus (1467-1536)

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) (Math, Astronomy)

Thomas More (1478-1535)

Paracelsus (1493-1541)

Petrus Ramus (1515-572)

Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)

Pierre Charron (1541-1603)

Francisco Suarez (1548-1617)

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) (Physics, Astronomy)

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) (Astronomy)

Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)

Edward Herbert, Baron Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648)

Marin Mersenne (1588-1648)

Sir Robert Filmer (1588-1653)

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

Henricus Regius (1598-1679)

Madeleine de, Marquise de Sable Souvre (1599-1678)

Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665)

Joseph Glanvill (1611-1680)

Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694)

Henry More (1614-1687)

Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688)

Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia (1618-1680)

Jacques Rohault (1620-1672)

Geraud de Cordemoy (1622-1684)

Margaret Lucas Cavendish (1623-1673)

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669)

Nicole, Pierre (1625-1695)

Kristina Wasa, Queen of Sweden (1626-1689)

Robert Boyle (1627-1692) (Chemistry, Physics)

Richard Cumberland (1631-1718)

Lady Anne Conway (1631-1679)

Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (1632-1694)

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)

Pierre-Sylvain Regis (1632-1707)

John Locke (1632-1704)

Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715)

Simon Foucher (1644-1696)

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) (Math, Physics)

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)

John Norris (1657-1711)

Lady Damaris Masham (1658-1708)

Giovanni Battista Vico (1668-1744)

John Toland (1670-1722)

Bernard de Mandeville (1670-1733)

The 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper III) (1671-1713)

Samuel Clarke (1675-1729)

Catharine Trotter Cockburn (1679-1749)

Christian Wolff (1679-1754)

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat (1689-1755)

Joseph Butler (1692-1752)

Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746)

Voltaire (François-Marie d'Arouet) (1694-1778) (Literature)

John Gay (1699-1745)

Thomas Bayes (1702-1761) (Math)

David Hartley (1705-1757)

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)

Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-November)

Thomas Reid (1710-1796)

David Hume (1711-1776) (N)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780)

Claude Adrien Helvétius (1715-1771)

Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783)

Richard Price (1723-1791)

Paul Henry Thiry, baron d'Holbach (1723-1789)

Adam Smith, (1723-1790)

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781)

Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786)

Edmund Burke (1730-1797)

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

William Paley (1743-1805)

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829)

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827)

Dugald Stewart (1753-1828)

William Godwin (1756-1836)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1798)

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805)

Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (Henri de Saint-Simon) (1760-1825)

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)

Thomas Robert Malthus (-1766-1834)

Madame de Staël (Anne Louise Germaine de Staël) (1766-1817)

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768-1834)

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) (Math, physics)

F. W. J. von Schelling, Hegel (1770-1831)

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854)

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)

Richard Whately (1787-1863)

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

William Stirling Hamilton (1788-1856)

John Austin (1790-1859)

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856)

William Whewell (1794-1866)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

James Mill (1773-1836)

Bernard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano (1781-1848)

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)

Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804-1872)

Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871)

Max Stirner (1806-1856)

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Harriet Hardy Taylor (1807-1858)

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814-1876)

George Boole (1815-1864)

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)

Rudolph Hermann Lotze (1817-1881)

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866)

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (1831-1916)

Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

John Venn (1834-1923)

Edward Caird (1835-1908)

Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882)

Ernst Mach (1838-1916)

Franz Clemens Brentano (1838-1917)

Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900)

Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914)

William James (1842-1910)

Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879)

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (1845-1918)

Francis Herbert Bradley (1846-1924)

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)

Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923)

Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (1848-1923)

John Cook Wilson (1849-1915)

Hans Vaihinger (1852-1933)

David George Ritchie (1853-1903)

Jules Henri Poincare (1854-1912)

Josiah Royce (1855-1916)

Sigmund Freud (Sigismund Schlomo Freud) (1856-1939) (Psychology)

Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison (1856-1931)

Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1929)

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)

Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932)

David Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947) (Physics)

Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

John Dewey (1859-1952)

Samuel Alexander (1859-1938)

Pierre Duhem (1861-1916)

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

David Hilbert (1862-1943)

George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)

George Santayana (1863-1952)

Karl Emil Maximilian Weber (1864-1920)

Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (1864-1936) (Author)

Benedetto Croce (1866-1952)

John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart (1866-1925)

Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) (Theology)

Alfred Adler (1870-1937) (Psychology)

Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) (1870-1924)

Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo (1871-1953) (Math)

Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919)

Harold Arthur Prichard (1871-1947)

Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872-1970)

George Edward Moore (1873-1958)

Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (1873-1962)

Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (1874-1948)

Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945)

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)

Ralph Barton Perry (1876-1957)

Sir William David Ross (1877-1971)

John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) (Psychology)

Jan Lukasiewicz (1878-1956)

Martin Buber (1878-1965)

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) (Physics, Math)

Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein) (1879-1940)

Moritz Schlick (1882-1936)

Otto Neurath (1882-1945)

Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950)

Jacques Maritain (1882-1973)

John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)

Karl Jaspers (1883-1969)

Clarence Irving Lewis (1883-1964)

Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962)

Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (1885-1962) (Physics)

Georg Lukács (1885-1971)

Karen Horney (1885-1952) (Psychology)

Paul Johannes Tillich (1886-1965)

Charlie Dunbar Broad (1887-1971)

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (1887-1961) (Physics)

George Pólya (1887-1985) (Math)

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)

Robin George Collingwood (1889-1943)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

Hans Reichenbach (1891-1953)

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970)

Roman Ingarden (1893-1970)

Susanne Langer (1895-1985)

Max Horkheimer (1895-1973)

Friedrich Waismann (1896-1959)

Clive Staples Lewis (1898-1963) (Author, Apologist)

Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)

Henry Habberley Price (1899-1984)

Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992)

Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976)

Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002)

Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)

Alfred Tarski (1901-1983)

Ernest Nagel (1901-1985)

Eric Voegelin (1901-1985)

Jacques-Marie-Emile Lacan (1901-1981) (Psychology)

Brand Blanshard (1902-1987)

Karl Popper (1902-1994)

Georg Feigl (1902-1988)

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1903-1930)

Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969)

John von Neumann (Margittai Neumann János Lajos) (1903-1957) (Physics)

Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (1903-1989)

Alonzo Church (1903-1995)

John Wisdom (1904-1993)

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) (Psychology)

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

Ayn Rand (1905-1982)

Carl Gustav Hempel (1905-1997)

Kurt Friedrich Godel (1906-1978)

Hannah Arendt (1906-1975)

Nelson Goodman (1906-1998 )

Gustav Bergmann (1906-1987)

Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (1907-1992)

Charles Leslie Stevenson (1908-1979)

Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000)

Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997)

A.J. Ayer (1910-1989)

John Langshaw Austin (J.L Austin) (1911-1960)

Alan Turing (1912-1954)

Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (1912-1989)

Albert Camus (1913-1960)

Herbert Paul Grice (1913-1988)

Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005)

Sir Stuart Newton Hampshire (1914-2004)

Roderick M. Chisholm (1916-1999)

Kurt Erich Baier (1917- )

Donald Davidson (1917-2003)

Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988) (Physics)

Louis Pierre Althusser (1918-1990)

Richard Mervyn Hare (1919-2002)

Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (1919-2001)

Peter Frederick Strawson (1919-2006)

John Jamieson Carswell Smart (1920- )

Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921- )

John Rawls (1921-2002)

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922-1996)

Imre Lakatos (1922-1974)

Paul Feyerabend (1924-1994)

Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998)

Benoit Mandelbrot (1924- )

Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995)

Michael A. E. Dummett (1925- )

Edmund Gettier (1927- )

David M. Armstrong (1926- )

Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

Hilary Putnam (1926- )

Marvin Minsky (1927- )

Avram Noam Chomsky (1928- )

Jurgen Habermas (1929- )

Edward Osborne Wilson (1929- ) (Biology)

Judith Jarvis Thomson (1929- )

Annette Baier (1929- )

Nel Noddings (1929- )

Virginia Potter Held (1929- )

Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)

Ronald Myles Dworkin (1931- )

Richard Rorty (1931-2007 )

Roger Penrose (1931- )

John Searle (1932- )

Luce Irigaray (1932- )

Umberto Eco (1932- )

Jaegwon Kim (1934- )

Sandra Harding (1935- )

Keith Lehrer (1936- )

Thomas Nagel (1937- )

Robert Nozick (1938-2002)

Tom Regan (1938- )

Saul Aaron Kripke (1940- )

Julia Kristeva (1941- )

Daniel Clement Dennett (1942- )

Donna Jeanne Haraway (1944- )

Appiah, Kwame Anthony ( - ) (African Philosophy)

Douglas Hofstadter (1945- )

Singer, Peter (1946- )

Martha Craven Nussbaum (1947- )

Susan Bordo (1947- )

Michele Le Doeuff (1948- )

Cornel West (1953- )

David John Chalmers (1966- )

Peter Abelard (1079-1142) (Theology)

Theodor W. Adorno (1903-1969)

Alfred Adler (1870-1937) (Psychology)

al-Farabi (872-950)

al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad (1055-1111)

al-Kindi (800-870)

Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783)

Samuel Alexander (1859-1938)

Louis Pierre Althusser (1918-1990)

Anaxagoras (500-428 BC)

Anaximander (611-547 BC)

Anaximenes (528 BC)

Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe (1919-2001)

Antisthenes (446-366 BC)

Appiah, Kwame Anthony ( - ) (African Philosophy)

Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) (Theology)

Archimedes (287-212 BC)

Hannah Arendt (1906-1975)

Aristippus (435-356 BC)

Aristotle (384-322 BC)

David M. Armstrong (1926- )

Antoine Arnauld (1612-1694)

Kenneth Joseph Arrow (1921- )

Augustine (354-430)

Marcus Aurelius (121-180)

John Austin (1790-1859)

John Langshaw Austin (J.L Austin) (1911-1960)

Averroes (Ibn Rushd) (1126-1198)

Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037)

A.J. Ayer (1910-1989)

Gaston Bachelard (1884-1962)

Francis Bacon (1561-1626)

Roger Bacon (1214-1292)

Annette Baier (1929- )

Kurt Erich Baier (1917- )

Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (1814-1876)

Thomas Bayes (1702-1761) (Math)

Pierre Bayle (1647-1706)

Simone de Beauvoir (1908-1986)

Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)

Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (1874-1948)

Gustav Bergmann (1906-1987)

Henri Bergson (1859-1941)

George Berkeley (1685-1753)

Isaiah Berlin (1909-1997)

Brand Blanshard (1902-1987)

Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (475-526)

Boetius of Dacia (1230-1285)

Bernard Placidus Johann Nepomuk Bolzano (1781-1848)

Susan Bordo (1947- )

Niels (Henrik David) Bohr (1885-1962) (Physics)

Saint Bonaventure (1217-1274)

George Boole (1815-1864)

Bernard Bosanquet (1848-1923)

Robert Boyle (1627-1692) (Chemistry, Physics)

Francis Herbert Bradley (1846-1924)

Franz Clemens Brentano (1838-1917)

Charlie Dunbar Broad (1887-1971)

Giordano Bruno (1548-1600)

Martin Buber (1878-1965)

John Buridan (1295-1356)

Edmund Burke (1730-1797)

Joseph Butler (1692-1752)

Edward Caird (1835-1908)

Albert Camus (1913-1960)

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor (1845-1918)

Rudolf Carnap (1891-1970)

Carneades (214-129 BC)

Ernst Cassirer (1874-1945)

Margaret Lucas Cavendish (1623-1673)

Pierre Charron (1541-1603)

David John Chalmers (1966- ) Roderick M. Chisholm (1916-1999)

Avram Noam Chomsky (1928- )

Chrysippus (280-207 BC)

Alonzo Church (1903-1995)

Cicero (106-43 BC)

Samuel Clarke (1675-1729)

William Kingdon Clifford (1845-1879)

Catharine Trotter Cockburn (1679-1749)

Robin George Collingwood (1889-1943)

Auguste Comte (1798-1857)

Lady Anne Conway (1631-1679)

The 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (Anthony Ashley Cooper III) (1671-1713)

Etienne Bonnot de Condillac (1715-1780)

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) (Math, Astronomy)

Crescas (1340-1411)

Benedetto Croce (1866-1952)

Ralph Cudworth (1617-1688)

Richard Cumberland (1631-1718)

Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882)

Abraham Ibn Daud (1110-1180)

Donald Davidson (1917-2003)

Julius Wilhelm Richard Dedekind (1831-1916)

Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995)

Democritus (460-370 BC)

Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871)

Daniel Clement Dennett (1942- )

Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)

Rene Descartes (1596-1650)

John Dewey (1859-1952)

Denis Diderot (1713-1784)

Wilhelm Dilthey (1833-1911)

Diogenes of Sinope (404-323 BC)

Michele Le Doeuff (1948- )

Pierre Duhem (1861-1916)

Michael A. E. Dummett (1925- )

David Émile Durkheim (1858-1917)

Ronald Myles Dworkin (1931- )

Meister Eckhart (1260-1328)

Umberto Eco (1932- )

Albert Einstein (1879-1955) (Physics, Math)

Princess Elizabeth of Bohemia (1618-1680)

Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882)

Empedocles (492-432 BC)

Sextus Empiricus (200)

Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

Epictetus (55-135)

Epicurus (341-271 BC)

Desiderius Erasmus (1467-1536)

Leonhard Euler (1707-1783)

Eratosthenes (276-197 BC) (Mathematician)

John Scottus Eriugena (800-877)

Euclid (365-300 BC)

Georg Feigl (1902-1988)

Pierre de Fermat (1601-1665)

Ludwig Andreas von Feuerbach (1804-1872)

Paul Feyerabend (1924-1994)

Richard Phillips Feynman (1918-1988) (Physics)

Fibonacci (Leonardo Pisano) (1170-1250) (Math)

Johann Gottlieb Fichte (1762-1814)

Marsilio Ficino (1433-1499)

Sir Robert Filmer (1588-1653)

Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

Simon Foucher (1644-1696)

Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830) (Math, physics)

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)

Sigmund Freud (Sigismund Schlomo Freud) (1856-1939) (Psychology)

Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900-2002)

Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655)

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855)

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) (Physics, Astronomy)

John Gay (1699-1745)

Geraud de Cordemoy (1622-1684)

Gersonides (Levi ben Gershom) (1288-1344)

Edmund Gettier (1927- )

Arnold Geulincx (1624-1669)

Joseph Glanvill (1611-1680)

Kurt Friedrich Godel (1906-1978)

William Godwin (1756-1836)

Nelson Goodman (1906-1998 )

Antonio Gramsci (1891-1937)

Thomas Hill Green (1836-1882)

Herbert Paul Grice (1913-1988)

Grosseteste (1168-1253)

Hugo Grotius (1583-1645)

Jurgen Habermas (1929- )

William Stirling Hamilton (1788-1856)

Sir Stuart Newton Hampshire (1914-2004)

Donna Jeanne Haraway (1944- )

Sandra Harding (1935- )

Richard Mervyn Hare (1919-2002)

Herbert Lionel Adolphus Hart (1907-1992)

David Hartley (1705-1757)

Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950)

Friedrich August von Hayek (1899-1992)

F. W. J. von Schelling, Hegel (1770-1831)

Martin Heidegger (1889-1976)

Werner Karl Heisenberg (1901-1976)

Virginia Potter Held (1929- )

Claude Adrien Helvétius (1715-1771)

Carl Gustav Hempel (1905-1997)

Heraclitus (540-475 BC)

Edward Herbert, Baron Herbert of Cherbury (1583-1648)

David Hilbert (1862-1943)

Hippias (485-415 BC)

Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679)

Douglas Hofstadter (1945- )

Max Horkheimer (1895-1973)

Karen Horney (1885-1952) (Psychology)

David Hume (1711-1776) (N)

Edmund Husserl (1859-1938)

Francis Hutcheson (1694-1746)

Hypatia (370-415)

Roman Ingarden (1893-1970)

Luce Irigaray (1932- )

William James (1842-1910)

Karl Jaspers (1883-1969)

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (1864-1936) (Author)

Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961)

Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)

Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) (Astronomy)

John Maynard Keynes (1883-1946)

Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (1813-1855)

Jaegwon Kim (1934- )

Saul Aaron Kripke (1940- )

Julia Kristeva (1941- )

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (1922-1996)

Jacques-Marie-Emile Lacan (1901-1981) (Psychology)

Imre Lakatos (1922-1974)

Jean-Baptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet, Chevalier de Lamarck (1744-1829)

Julien Offray de La Mettrie (1709-November)

Susanne Langer (1895-1985)

Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace (1749-1827)

Keith Lehrer (1936- )

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)

Lenin (Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov) (1870-1924)

Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (1729-1781)

Leucippus (450 BC)

Clarence Irving Lewis (1883-1964)

Clive Staples Lewis (1898-1963) (Author, Apologist)

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (1792-1856)

John Locke (1632-1704)

Peter Lombard (1095-1160)

Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (1903-1989)

Rudolph Hermann Lotze (1817-1881)

Arthur Oncken Lovejoy (1873-1962)

Lucretius (99-55 BC)

Georg Lukacs (1885-1971)

Jan Lukasiewicz (1878-1956)

Rosa Luxemburg (1871-1919)

Jean-François Lyotard (1924-1998)

Ernst Mach (1838-1916)

Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)

Albertus Magnus (Albert the Great) (1206-1280)

Maimonides (Moses ben Maimon) (1138-1204)

Nicolas Malebranche (1638-1715)

Thomas Robert Malthus (-1766-1834)

Benoit Mandelbrot (1924- )

Bernard de Mandeville (1670-1733)

Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979)

Jacques Maritain (1882-1973)

Marsilius of Inghen (1340-1396)

Marsilius of Padua (1270-1342)

Karl Marx (1818-1883)

John McTaggart Ellis McTaggart (1866-1925)

Lady Damaris Masham (1658-1708)

George Herbert Mead (1863-1931)

Moses Mendelssohn (1729-1786)

Marin Mersenne (1588-1648)

James Mill (1773-1836)

John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)

Marvin Minsky (1927- )

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494)

Michel de Montaigne (1533-1592)

Baron de Montesquieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat (1689-1755)

George Edward Moore (1873-1958)

Henry More (1614-1687)

Thomas More (1478-1535)

Ernest Nagel (1901-1985)

Thomas Nagel (1937- )

John von Neumann (Margittai Neumann János Lajos) (1903-1957) (Physics)

Otto Neurath (1882-1945)

Isaac Newton (1642-1727) (Math, Physics)

Nicholas of Cusa (Nikolas Krypffts von Kus) Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)

Nel Noddings (1929- )

John Norris (1657-1711)

Robert Nozick (1938-2002)

Martha Craven Nussbaum (1947- )

William of Ockham (Occam), (1280-1349)

Rudolf Otto (1869-1937) (Theology)

Thomas Paine (1737-1809)

William Paley (1743-1805)

Paracelsus (1493-1541)

Vilfredo Federico Damaso Pareto (1848-1923)

Parmenides (510 BC)

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

Giuseppe Peano (1858-1932)

Charles Sanders Peirce (1839-1914)

Roger Penrose (1931- )

Ralph Barton Perry (1876-1957)

Philo of Alexandria (20 BC-40)

Nicole, Pierre (1625-1695)

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (1858-1947) (Physics)

Plato (427-347 BC)

Plotinus (204-270)

Jules Henri Poincare (1854-1912)

George Pólya (1887-1985) (Math)

Maurice Merleau-Ponty (1908-1961)

Karl Popper (1902-1994)

Porphyry (234-305)

Henry Habberley Price (1899-1984)

Richard Price (1723-1791)

Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison (1856-1931)

Harold Arthur Prichard (1871-1947)

Protagoras (485-415 BC)

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon (1809-1865)

Baron Samuel von Pufendorf (1632-1694)

Hilary Putnam (1926- )

Pyrrho (360-270 BC)

Pythagoras (585-497 BC)

Willard Van Orman Quine (1908-2000)

Frank Plumpton Ramsey (1903-1930)

Petrus Ramus (1515-572)

Ayn Rand (1905-1982)

John Rawls (1921-2002)

Hans Reichenbach (1891-1953)

Thomas Reid (1710-1796)

Tom Regan (1938- )

Pierre-Sylvain Regis (1632-1707)

Henricus Regius (1598-1679)

Paul Ricoeur (1913-2005)

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (1826-1866)

David George Ritchie (1853-1903)

Jacques Rohault (1620-1672)

Richard Rorty (1931-2007 )

Sir William David Ross (1877-1971)

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)

Josiah Royce (1855-1916)

Bertrand Arthur William Russell (1872-1970)

Gilbert Ryle (1900-1976)

Saadya (Saadiah) (882-942)

Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon (Henri de Saint-Simon) (1760-1825)

George Santayana (1863-1952)

Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980)

Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775-1854)

Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller (1759-1805)

Friedrich Daniel Ernst Schleiermacher (1768-1834)

Moritz Schlick (1882-1936)

Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860)

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (1887-1961) (Physics)

John Duns Scotus (1266-1308)

John Searle (1932- )

Wilfrid Stalker Sellars (1912-1989)

Seneca (1 BC-65)

Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900)

Siger of Brabant (1235-1282)

Singer, Peter (1946- )

Burrhus Frederic Skinner (1904-1990) (Psychology)

John Jamieson Carswell Smart (1920- )

Adam Smith, (1723-1790)

Socrates (469-399 BC)

Madeleine de, Marquise de Sable Souvre (1599-1678)

Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)

Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677)

Madame de Staël (Anne Louise Germaine de Staël) (1766-1817)

St. Anselm of Canterbury (1033-1109)

Charles Leslie Stevenson (1908-1979)

Dugald Stewart (1753-1828)

Max Stirner (1806-1856)

Peter Frederick Strawson (1919-2006)

Francisco Suarez (1548-1617)

Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)

Alfred Tarski (1901-1983)

Harriet Hardy Taylor (1807-1858)

Thales (585 BC)

Paul Henry Thiry, baron d'Holbach (1723-1789)

Judith Jarvis Thomson (1929- )

Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)

Samuel Ibn Tibbon (1165-1232)

Paul Johannes Tillich (1886-1965)

Timon (320-230 BC)

John Toland (1670-1722)

Leon Davidovich Trotsky (Lev Davidovich Bronstein) (1879-1940)

Alan Turing (1912-1954)

Hans Vaihinger (1852-1933)

Lorenzo Valla (1406-1457)

Thorstein Bunde Veblen (1857-1929)

John Venn (1834-1923)

Giovanni Battista Vico (1668-1744)

Eric Voegelin (1901-1985)

Voltaire (François-Marie d'Arouet) (1694-1778) (Literature)

Friedrich Waismann (1896-1959)

Kristina Wasa, Queen of Sweden (1626-1689)

Richard Whately (1787-1863)

John Broadus Watson (1878-1958) (Psychology)

Karl Emil Maximilian Weber (1864-1920)

Cornel West (1953- )

Alfred North Whitehead (1861-1947)

William Whewell (1794-1866)

Edward Osborne Wilson (1929- ) (Biology)

John Cook Wilson (1849-1915)

John Wisdom (1904-1993)

Ludwig Wittgenstein (1889-1951)

Christian Wolff (1679-1754)

Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1798)

Xenocrates (396-314 BC)

Xenophanes (570-475 BC)

Xenophon (430-350 BC)

Zeno of Citium (334-262 BC)

Zeno of Elea (450 BC)

Ernst Friedrich Ferdinand Zermelo (1871-1953) (Math)

—(02/20/10)